NYC Ferry is a network of ferry routes in New York City operated by Hornblower Cruises. There are six routes connecting 21 ferry piers in the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Queens. NYC Ferry has a total of 31 vessels, providing half-hourly to hourly service on each of the routes. Prior to NYC Ferry, there had been many ferries that traversed the East River and Hudson River, although by the 1960s, almost all ferry services citywide had been discontinued due to the popularity of road and rail transit across the rivers. Ferries in New York City saw a revival in the 1980s and 1990s. As a result of two studies in 2011 and 2013 that showed the effects of these recent ferries, the city officially proposed its own ferry service in 2013, separate from existing New York City ferry systems such as NY Waterway, New York Water Taxi, and the Staten Island Ferry. The ferry service was originally expected to transport 4.5 to 4.6 million passengers annually. Higher-than-expected ridership on NYC Ferry routes in summer 2017 caused officials to order new vessels and expand the capacity of existing vessels. In spring 2018, the annual ridership estimates were revised to 9 million, double the original projection, and a further expansion of the NYC Ferry fleet was announced. Despite its crowding, the ferry has generally received positive reviews from passengers.